Scientific Publications

The following are selected articles in peer-reviewed scientific and medical publications.  Links are provided to, part of the US National Library of Medicine, and includes information on obtaining a copy of the articles.

Vyleesi for Female Sexual Dysfunction

Conversations With Women About Female Sexual Dysfunction (FSD) and Treatment With Bremelanotide

November 2016

Female sexual dysfunctions (FSD) include a range of distressing, multifactorial conditions, such as dysfunctions of sexual interest/desire, sexual arousal, a delay in or absence of orgasm, and sexual pain. The most common sexual concern expressed by women is diminished or lack of desire for sexual activity, which may be diagnosed as hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD), if the lack of desire causes distress. Bremelanotide (BMT), a novel cyclic 7-amino acid melanocortin-receptor agonist with the potential to modulate neural pathways involved in sexual response, is being developed to treat FSD.

Bremelanotide for female sexual dysfunctions in premenopausal women: a randomized, placebo-controlled dose-ranging trial


The aim was to evaluate efficacy/safety of bremelanotide, a melanocortin-receptor-4 agonist, to treat female sexual dysfunctions in premenopausal women. In premenopausal women with female sexual dysfunctions, self-administered, as desired, subcutaneous bremelanotide was safe, effective, and well tolerated.

Drugs in early clinical development for the treatment of female sexual dysfunction

Expert Opin Investig Drugs.2015 Feb;24(2):159-67

There is growing recognition of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) as an important women's health concern. Despite an increased awareness of the pathophysiologic components to FSD, currently, there are no drugs approved for the most common sexual complaint in women-decreased sexual desire.

Melanocortin receptor agonists in the treatment of male and female sexual dysfunctions: results from basic research and clinical studies

Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2014 Nov;23(11):1477-83

Over the last 20 years, basic and clinical research activities studying the male and female sexual responses have led to several pharmacological options to treat male erectile dysfunction (ED) and female arousal and orgasmic disorders.

Bremelanotide: an overview of preclinical CNS effects on female sexual function

J Sex Med. 2007 Nov;4 Suppl 4:269-79

Bremelanotide is an analogue of the naturally occurring peptide alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH). It stimulates erection in men and male rats, and is currently in clinical trials for the treatment of erectile dysfunction.

Clinical application of CNS-acting agents in FSD

J Sex Med. 2007 Nov;4 Suppl 4:280-90

Human sexual response involves a complex sequencing of interrelated mind/body processes. Few treatment options exist that address the complex multilayered etiological determinants of female sexual dysfunction (FSD).

Melanocortins in the treatment of male and female sexual dysfunction

Curr Top Med Chem. 2007;7(11):1137-44

Melanocortinergic agents are currently being investigated for a possible therapeutic role in male and female sexual dysfunction. These investigations were sparked by findings that systemic administration of a synthetic analog of alpha-MSH, MT-II, causes penile erections in a variety of species, including humans.

An effect on the subjective sexual response in premenopausal women with sexual arousal disorder by bremelanotide (PT-141), a melanocortin receptor agonist

J Sex Med. 2006 Jul;3(4):628-38

Melanocortins affect multiple physiological responses, including sexual behaviors. Bremelanotide is a synthetic peptide melanocortin analog of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone that is an agonist at melanocortin receptors MC3R and MC4R.

Selective facilitation of sexual solicitation in the female rat by a melanocortin receptor agonist

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Jul 6;101(27):10201-4

Disorders of sexual desire affect an estimated 30% of women in North America and Europe, with etiologies based on interpersonal, personal, and physiological factors.


In vitro and in vivo pharmacological profile of PL-3994, a novel cyclic peptide (Hept-cyclo(Cys-His-Phe-d-Ala-Gly-Arg-d-Nle-Asp-Arg-Ile-Ser-Cys)-Tyr-[Arg mimetic]-NH(2)) natriuretic peptide receptor-A agonist that is resistant to neutral endopeptidase and acts as a bronchodilator

Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2013 Apr;26(2):229-38

The pharmacological and airways relaxant profiles of PL-3994 (Hept-cyclo(Cys-His-Phe-d-Ala-Gly-Arg-d-Nle-Asp-Arg-Ile-Ser-Cys)-Tyr-[Arg mimetic]-NH(2)), a novel natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPR-A) agonist, were evaluated. PL-3994, a full agonist, has high affinity for recombinant human (h), dog, or rat NPR-As (K(i)s of 1, 41, and 10 nm, respectively), and produced concentration-dependent cGMP generation in human, dog and rat NPR-As (respective EC(50)s of 2, 3 and 14 nm).