The following are selected articles in peer-reviewed scientific and medical publications. Links are provided to PubMed.gov, part of the US National Library of Medicine, and includes information on obtaining a copy of the articles.
Bremelanotide for Female Sexual Dysfunction
Bremelanotide for female sexual dysfunctions in premenopausal women: a randomized, placebo-controlled dose-ranging trial
Women's Health, 12:325-337 (2016); Published online 16 May 2016
The aim was to evaluate efficacy/safety of bremelanotide, a melanocortin-receptor-4 agonist, to treat female sexual dysfunctions in premenopausal women. In premenopausal women with female sexual dysfunctions, self-administered, as desired, subcutaneous bremelanotide was safe, effective, and well tolerated.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs.2015 Feb;24(2):159-67
There is growing recognition of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) as an important women's health concern. Despite an increased awareness of the pathophysiologic components to FSD, currently, there are no drugs approved for the most common sexual complaint in women-decreased sexual desire.
Melanocortin receptor agonists in the treatment of male and female sexual dysfunctions: results from basic research and clinical studies
Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2014 Nov;23(11):1477-83
Over the last 20 years, basic and clinical research activities studying the male and female sexual responses have led to several pharmacological options to treat male erectile dysfunction (ED) and female arousal and orgasmic disorders.
J Sex Med. 2007 Nov;4 Suppl 4:269-79
Bremelanotide is an analogue of the naturally occurring peptide alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH). It stimulates erection in men and male rats, and is currently in clinical trials for the treatment of erectile dysfunction.
J Sex Med. 2007 Nov;4 Suppl 4:280-90
Human sexual response involves a complex sequencing of interrelated mind/body processes. Few treatment options exist that address the complex multilayered etiological determinants of female sexual dysfunction (FSD).
Curr Top Med Chem. 2007;7(11):1137-44
Melanocortinergic agents are currently being investigated for a possible therapeutic role in male and female sexual dysfunction. These investigations were sparked by findings that systemic administration of a synthetic analog of alpha-MSH, MT-II, causes penile erections in a variety of species, including humans.
An effect on the subjective sexual response in premenopausal women with sexual arousal disorder by bremelanotide (PT-141), a melanocortin receptor agonist
J Sex Med. 2006 Jul;3(4):628-38
Melanocortins affect multiple physiological responses, including sexual behaviors. Bremelanotide is a synthetic peptide melanocortin analog of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone that is an agonist at melanocortin receptors MC3R and MC4R.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Jul 6;101(27):10201-4
Disorders of sexual desire affect an estimated 30% of women in North America and Europe, with etiologies based on interpersonal, personal, and physiological factors.
In vitro and in vivo pharmacological profile of PL-3994, a novel cyclic peptide (Hept-cyclo(Cys-His-Phe-d-Ala-Gly-Arg-d-Nle-Asp-Arg-Ile-Ser-Cys)-Tyr-[Arg mimetic]-NH(2)) natriuretic peptide receptor-A agonist that is resistant to neutral endopeptidase and acts as a bronchodilator
Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2013 Apr;26(2):229-38
The pharmacological and airways relaxant profiles of PL-3994 (Hept-cyclo(Cys-His-Phe-d-Ala-Gly-Arg-d-Nle-Asp-Arg-Ile-Ser-Cys)-Tyr-[Arg mimetic]-NH(2)), a novel natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPR-A) agonist, were evaluated. PL-3994, a full agonist, has high affinity for recombinant human (h), dog, or rat NPR-As (K(i)s of 1, 41, and 10 nm, respectively), and produced concentration-dependent cGMP generation in human, dog and rat NPR-As (respective EC(50)s of 2, 3 and 14 nm).